An Update on Newer [Beta]-Lactamases (Report)

An Update on Newer [Beta]-Lactamases (Report)

The resistance to [beta]-lactam antibiotics is an increasing problem worldwide and [beta] lactamases production is the most common mechanism of drug resistance. Both global and Indian figures showed a marked increase in the number of [beta]-lactamases producing organisms. These enzymes extended spectrum [beta]-lactamases (ESBLs) are numerous and continuous mutation has led to the development of enzymes having expanded substrate profile. To date, there are more than 130 TEM type and more than 50 sulphydryl variable (SHV) type [beta]-lactamases found in Gram negative bacilli. ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are, as a rule, resistant to all cephalosporins and extended spectrum penicillins including the monobactam, aztreonam, while resistance to trimethoprim–sulphamethaxazole and aminoglycosides is frequently co-transferred on the same plasmid. Many ESBL producing organisms also express Amp C [beta]-lactamases. Amp C-[beta]-lactamases are clinically significant, as these confer resistance to cephalosporins in the oxyimino group, 7[alpha]-methoxy cephalosporins, and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Carbepenems are the drugs of choice for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL producing organisms but carbapenemases (MBLs) have emerged and have spread from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Enterobacteriaceae. The routine clinical microbiology laboratories should employ simple methods to recognize these enzymes using various substrates and inhibitors. These organisms may lead to therapeutic dead ends. Presently, the therapy relies on [beta]-lactam/ [beta]-lactamases inhibitor combinations, carbepenems and piperacillin–tazobactam plus aminoglycoside combination. Proper infection control practices and barrier precautions are essential to contain the organisms producing [beta]-lactamases. Key words [beta]-lactamases–ESBL–MBL–resistance–SHV–TEM

An Update on Newer [Beta]-Lactamases (Report)



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