Diseases and ailments have afflicted humanity since antediluvian times. Man’s response in treating disease and, on occasion, finding its cause has been synonymous with the evolution of society, no matter how ancient. Therefore, medicine as we know it today is as old as Man, and must have developed with the first awakening of human consciousness, evolving with successive civilisations. It is therefore not surprising that the antiquity and the rich tapestry of ancient India has been long associated with seminal contributions to the development of medicine. (1, 2) Ancient India’s contributions to ethics and surgical training are remarkable–and, almost 3 000 years later, continue to have great relevance today, given current widespread concerns about the erosion of long-held value systems and cherished codes of medical practice.