Diagnosis of sperm DNA integrity of semen sample is important for consistently high reproductive efficiency. The conventional parameters of semen analysis take into account morphology, motility, and concentration of spermatozoa in the sample, which are insufficient for evaluation of reproductive potential. Current studies have implicated abnormal organization of genomic material in sperms as a probable cause in 20 per cent cases of male infertility. This is especially important in the era of assisted reproduction technique (ART) when a majority of infertile couples opt for assisted reproduction and in where cases DNA integrity is a better diagnostic and prognostic marker as compared to routine semen analysis. This article reviews and discusses some of the current techniques employed for evaluating chromatin structure or DNA damage in spermatozoa. These different techniques include single cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay), Terminal tranferase dUTP Nick End Labelling (TUNEL), sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), In situ nick translation (ISNT) and acridine orange test. These techniques are independent measure of sperm quality and assist in semen quality assessment by detecting defects in DNA integrity or chromatin structure. The discussed techniques vary in their level of accuracy, cost input, sophistication of analysis and their application depends upon the sensitivity required for analysis.