Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Nocturnal Sleep Duration and Psychopathology Among Nigerian University Students (Report)
The average adult human sleeps for about 8 of every 24 hours. (1) Most of our sleep occurs at night, since we function predominantly during the day and it is necessary to be awake and alert. Under certain conditions, humans are unable to maintain the state of wakefulness needed for daytime functioning. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) manifests with increased sleepiness in situations in which the individual would reasonably be expected to be awake and alert. Common causes of EDS include sleep deprivation, (2) obstructive sleep apnoea, narcolepsy, idiopathic hypersomnia and sedative/ hypnotic drugs. (3) Obstructive sleep apnoea is characterised by snoring and episodes of apnoeic attacks during sleep. Narcolepsy is characterised by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy (sudden decrease or loss of muscle tone often precipitated by intense emotion), sleep paralysis and hypnagogic (sleep-onset) hallucinations. The features of idiopathic hypersomnia include chronic sleepiness without cataplexy or other features of narcolepsy.