Introduction Since the end of the 1960-ies, there have been around 1000-1500 international adoptions per year in Sweden. During the period 1969-2007 there have been 48094 children adopted in Sweden. Of these 6821 (14%) have come from India. During the peak years of adoption in the 1980-ies about 20-25 per cent of the arrivals each year came from India (1). The adoptive parents lived all over Sweden. The children underwent an initial health examination on arrival in Sweden and were subsequently monitored regarding health and development in children’s health clinics. Many of the children were at arrival suffering from chronic malnutrition resulting in stunting, and were also afflicted with various infectious diseases. Psychomotor retardation was also observed. It was seen that most adopted children caught up well in height and weight, became cured of most of the infectious diseases and developed well. However, after some years reports started to come that some adopted girls came into puberty very early.