Improved Filter Method for Urine Sediment Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (Report)

Improved Filter Method for Urine Sediment Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (Report)

Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the ninth most common in women. (1) In 2007, an estimated 13 750 Americans will die of bladder cancer, and 67 160 new cases are expected, (1) of which 70% to 75% are classified as non-muscle invasive (stage Ta, T1, or Tis). (2,3) Up to 70% of these tumors recur, and 20% to 30% of recurrences progress to a higher stage or grade. (4-6) Currently, urinary cytology is used in combination with cystoscopy for the diagnosis of primary bladder cancer and to monitor patients for early detection of recurrence after initial transurethral resection. However, cystoscopy is invasive, is expensive, and has poor sensitivity in detecting flat urothelial lesions such as carcinoma in situ. (7-9) Voided urine cytology is accurate for detecting high-grade cancer, with sensitivity as high as 95% and 100% specificity. The major disadvantage of cytology is its low sensitivity–as low as 20%–for low-grade cancer. (10)

Improved Filter Method for Urine Sediment Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma by Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization (Report)

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