Manganese Exposure, Essentiality & Toxicity (Clinical Report)

Manganese Exposure, Essentiality & Toxicity (Clinical Report)

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element present in all living organisms and is naturally present in rocks, soil, water, and food. Exposure to high oral, parenteral, or ambient air concentrations of Mn can result in elevations in Mn tissue levels and neurological effects. However, current understanding of the impact of Mn exposure on the nervous system leads to the hypothesis that there should be no adverse effects at low exposures, because Mn is an essential element; therefore, there should be some threshold for exposure above which adverse effects may occur and adverse effects may increase in frequency with higher exposures beyond that threshold. Data gaps regarding Mn neurotoxicity include what the clinical significance is of the neurobehavioural, neuropsychological, or neurological endpoints measured in many of the occupational studies that have evaluated cohorts exposed to relatively low levels of Mn. Specific early biomarkers of effect, such as subclinical neurobehavioural or neurological changes or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes have not been established or validated for Mn, although some studies have attempted to correlate biomarkers with neurological effects. Experimental studies with rodents and monkeys provide valuable information about the absorption, bioavailability, and tissue distribution of various Mn compounds with different solubilities and oxidation states in different age groups. Studies have shown that rodents and primates maintain stable tissue manganese levels as a result of homeostatic mechanisms that tightly regulate absorption and excretion. In addition, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are being developed to provide for the ability to conduct route-to-route extrapolations, evaluate nasal uptake to the CNS, and evaluate lifestage differences in Mn pharmacokinetics. Such models will facilitate more rigorous quantitative analysis of the available pharmacokinetic data for Mn and will be used to identify situations that may lead to increased brain accumulation related to altered Mn metabolism in different human populations, and develop quantitatively accurate predictions of increased Mn levels that may serve as a basis of dosimetry-based risk assessments. Such assessments will permit for the development of more scientifically refined and robust recommendations, guidelines, and regulations for Mn levels in the ambient environment and occupational settings. Key words Biomarkers–manganism–manganese–neurological effects–neurotoxicity

Manganese Exposure, Essentiality & Toxicity (Clinical Report)



Here is Download Link

Hayes Principles And Methods Of Toxicology Sixth Edition


Hayes Principles And Methods Of Toxicology Sixth Edition Read Online Download

Author by : A. Wallace Hayes
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2014-10-10
Publisher by : CRC Press






Manganese In Health And Disease


Manganese In Health And Disease Read Online Download

Author by : Lucio G Costa
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2014-12-05
Publisher by : Royal Society of Chemistry






Essential Metals In Medicine Therapeutic Use And Toxicity Of Metal Ions In The Clinic


Essential Metals In Medicine Therapeutic Use And Toxicity Of Metal Ions In The Clinic Read Online Download

Author by : Peggy L. Carver
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2019-01-14
Publisher by : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG






Interrelations Between Essential Metal Ions And Human Diseases


Interrelations Between Essential Metal Ions And Human Diseases Read Online Download

Author by : Astrid Sigel
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2014-01-27
Publisher by : Springer Science & Business Media






Advanced Nutrition And Human Metabolism


Advanced Nutrition And Human Metabolism Read Online Download

Author by : Sareen S. Gropper
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2016-10-05
Publisher by : Nelson Education






Environmental Pollution


Environmental Pollution Read Online Download

Author by : Gottipolu R. Reddy
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2012
Publisher by : Alpha Science International Limited






Environmental Law Reporter


Environmental Law Reporter Read Online Download

Author by :
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 1996
Publisher by :






The Nutritional Trace Metals


The Nutritional Trace Metals Read Online Download

Author by : Conor Reilly
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2008-04-15
Publisher by : John Wiley & Sons






Cognitive Disorders Advances In Research And Treatment 2012 Edition


Cognitive Disorders Advances In Research And Treatment 2012 Edition Read Online Download

Author by :
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2012-12-26
Publisher by : ScholarlyEditions






Casarett Doull S Toxicology The Basic Science Of Poisons Seventh Edition


Casarett Doull S Toxicology The Basic Science Of Poisons Seventh Edition Read Online Download

Author by : Curtis Klaassen
Languange Used : en
Release Date : 2007-11-20
Publisher by : McGraw Hill Professional






Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *