Retinal Glia

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Retinal Glia


Retinal Glia
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Retinal Glia


Retinal Glia
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Author : Andreas Reichenbach
language : en
Publisher: Biota Publishing
Release Date : 2015-02-01



Retinal Glia written by Andreas Reichenbach and has been published by Biota Publishing this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2015-02-01 with Medical categories.


In 1851, Heinrich Müller discovered what he called “radial fibers” and what we now call Müller cells, as the principal glial cells of the vertebrate retina. Later on, other glial cell types were found in the retina, including astrocytes, microglia, and even oligodendrocytes. It turned out that retinal glial cells are essential constituents of the tissue. For instance, Müller cells appear to constitute the “core” of columnar units of clonally and functionally related groups of neurons. Their primary function is to support neuronal functioning by guiding the light towards the photoreceptor cells, removing excess neurotransmitter molecules from extracellular space, and performing efficient clearance of excess extracellular potassium ions. The latter two functions are also crucial for neuronal survival and are coupled to water clearance which is also essential. Müller cells are capable of “sensing” neuronal activity and modifying it by the release of signal substances (gliotransmitters). In cases of retinal injuries the Müller cells become reactive, and all above-mentioned functions are impaired. However, such de-differentiated Müller cells may proliferate, and may even serve as stem cells for the regeneration of a damaged retina. As well as the Müller cells, retinal astrocytes and microglial cells are important players in retinal development and function. This book gives a comprehensive survey of the present knowledge on retinal glia.

Proteome Analysis Of Retinal Glia Cells Related Inflammatory Cytokines In The Aqueous Humour Of Diabetic Patients


Proteome Analysis Of Retinal Glia Cells Related Inflammatory Cytokines In The Aqueous Humour Of Diabetic Patients
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File Size : 49,9 Mb
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Author :
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2015



Proteome Analysis Of Retinal Glia Cells Related Inflammatory Cytokines In The Aqueous Humour Of Diabetic Patients written by and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2015 with categories.




Stimulating Retinal Neurogenesis From M Ller Glia


Stimulating Retinal Neurogenesis From M Ller Glia
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Author : Julia Pollak
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2013



Stimulating Retinal Neurogenesis From M Ller Glia written by Julia Pollak and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2013 with categories.


Damage to the retina, through disease or injury, can lead to the permanent loss of neurons and ultimately loss of vision. Non-mammalian vertebrates have a robust ability to regenerate injured retinal neurons from Müller glial cells that activate the gene encoding the proneural factor Achaete-scute homolog 1 (Ascl1) and de-differentiate into progenitor cells. By contrast, mammalian Müller glia have a limited regenerative response and fail to upregulate Ascl1 after injury. In this work, I explored whether neurogenic transcription factors, including Ascl1, could restore neurogenic potential to mammalian Müller glia by overexpressing these factors in dissociated mouse Müller glial cultures and intact retinal explants. ASCL1-infected Müller glia upregulated retinal progenitor-specific genes and downregulated glial genes. Furthermore, ASCL1 remodeled the chromatin at its targets from a repressive to an active configuration. Müller glia-derived progenitors differentiated into cells that exhibited neuronal morphologies, expressed retinal subtype-specific neuronal markers and displayed neuron-like physiological responses. Additional neurogenic activators potentiated some of these effects. These results indicate that neural-promoting transcription factors can induce a neurogenic state in mature Müller glia, providing an alternative strategy for repair of the retina after disease or injury.

Na


Na
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Author : Andreas Reichenbach
language : en
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Release Date : 2011-02-18



Na written by Andreas Reichenbach and has been published by Springer Science & Business Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2011-02-18 with Neuroglia categories.


Müller cells make up just 0.005% of the cells in our central nervous system. They do not belong to the more esteemed family of neuronal cells but to the glia, a family of cells that until recently were seen as mere filling material between the neurons. Now, however, all that has changed. Sharing the insights of more than a quarter century of research into Müller cells, Drs. Andreas Reichenbach and Andreas Bringmann of Leipzig University make a compelling case for the central role Müller cells play. Everyone agrees that the eye is a very special and versatile sense organ, yet it has turned out in recent years that Müller cells are peculiar and multipotent glial cells. In the retina of most vertebrates and even of many mammals, Müller cells are the only type of (macro- ) glial cells; thus, they are responsible for a wealth of neuron-supportive functions that, in the brain, rely upon a division of labour among astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymal cells. Even beyond such a role in the central nervous system as "model glia", Müller cells are adapted to several exciting roles in support of vision. They deliver the light stimuli to the photoreceptor cells in the inverted vertebrate retina, aid the processing of visual information, and are responsible for the homeostatic maintenance of the retinal extracellular milieu. In Müller Cells in the Healthy and Diseased Retina, aimed not just at neurobiologists but at anyone concerned with retinal degeneration, every angle of Müller cells is covered, from an introduction to their basic properties, through their roles as 'light cables' and 'shock absorbers', to the part they play in diseases and disorders of the eye. Once these have all been covered in detail, the authors move on to discuss the future direction of research into these small but potent cellular phenomena. About the Authors Dr. Andreas Reichenbach was born in 1950 in Leipzig, Germany. He studied medicine and specialized as a physiologist, working on the mammalian retina. Since 1984, he has focused his efforts - and those of a growing number of fellows in his team - on Müller cell research. He has held a professorship at Leipzig University since 1994. After studying biology, Dr. Andreas Bringmann (* 1960) worked in the field of systemic neurophysiology until he was inspired in 1996 by Andreas Reichenbach to research the most interesting cell, the Müller cell. He is now in the Department of Ophthalmology of the University of Leipzig where he is the head of the Basic Research Laboratory

M Ller Glia And Notch Signaling In Zebrafish Retinal Development And Regeneration


M Ller Glia And Notch Signaling In Zebrafish Retinal Development And Regeneration
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File Size : 55,8 Mb
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Author : Rebecca L. Bernardos
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2006



M Ller Glia And Notch Signaling In Zebrafish Retinal Development And Regeneration written by Rebecca L. Bernardos and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2006 with categories.




Structure And Function Relationship Of Activated Retinal Glia In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients


Structure And Function Relationship Of Activated Retinal Glia In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients
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Author : Christoph Hans Nützi
language : en
Publisher:
Release Date : 2018*



Structure And Function Relationship Of Activated Retinal Glia In Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients written by Christoph Hans Nützi and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2018* with categories.




Adler S Physiology Of The Eye E Book


Adler S Physiology Of The Eye E Book
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File Size : 45,7 Mb
Total Download : 377

Author : Leonard A Levin
language : en
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Release Date : 2011-03-03



Adler S Physiology Of The Eye E Book written by Leonard A Levin and has been published by Elsevier Health Sciences this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2011-03-03 with Medical categories.


Drs. Paul L. Kaufman, Albert Alm, Leonard A Levin, Siv F. E. Nilsson, James Ver Hoeve, and Samuel Wu present the 11th Edition of the classic text Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, updated to enhance your understanding of ocular function. This full-color, user-friendly edition captures the latest molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries and offers you unparalleled knowledge and insight into the physiology of the eye and its structures. A new organization by function, rather than anatomy, helps you make a stronger connection between physiological principles and clinical practice; and more than 1,000 great new full-color illustrations help clarify complex concepts. Deepen your grasp of the physiological principles that underlie visual acuity, color vision, ocular circulation, the extraocular muscle, and much more. Glean the latest knowledge in the field, including the most recent molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries. Make a stronger connection between physiology and clinical practice with the aid of an enhanced clinical emphasis throughout, as well as a new organization by function rather than by anatomy. Better visualize all concepts by viewing 1,000 clear, full-color illustrations.