Emergence of Extensive Drug Resistance (XDR) Among Gramnegative Bacilli in South Africa Looms Nearer (Issues IN PUBLIC Health) (Report)

Until recently, the term ‘extensive drug resistance’ (XDR) was held to be applicable to Mycobacterium tuberculosis only. It is now clear that Gram-negative bacilli are moving a step closer towards acquiring similar resistance. The emergence of multi(MDR) and pan-drug...

Prevalence of Drug-Drug Interactions of Antiretroviral Agents in the Private Health Care Sector in South Africa.

Objectives. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can be effectively treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), requiring concomitant administration of three to four different agents, often with a high potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study aimed to determine...

Expanding Access to ART in South Africa: The Role of Nurse-Initiated Treatment (Issues IN Medicine) (Antiretroviral Therapy )

The South African government’s recent policy decision to expand access to HIV care rapidly and ‘ensure that all the health institutions in the country are ready to receive and assist patients and not just a few accredited ARV centres’...

Monitoring the South African National Antiretroviral Treatment Programme, 2003-2007: the Iedea Southern Africa Collaboration (Original Articles) (Report)

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that in 2007, 9.7 million people in low–and middle-income countries needed antiretroviral treatment (ART), (1) 9% of whom were living in South Africa. (2) By the end of 2007, the South African National...

Perpetration of Gross Human Rights Violations in South Africa: Association with Psychiatric Disorders (Original Articles) (Report)

South Africa provides a unique laboratory for studying the perpetration of different forms of violence. During apartheid a range of acts of racial violence were perpetrated, including gross human rights violations (HRVs). However, both before and after apartheid there...

HIV Prevalence and Incidence in People 50 Years and Older in Rural South Africa (Scientific Letters) (Letter to the Editor)

To the Editor: Studies of HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa usually focus on the age group 15-49 years. (1) However, estimates of HIV prevalence in older people are required for health policy and planning. The health care and social...

Estimating the Burden of Disease Attributable to Interpersonal Violence in South Africa in 2000 (Scientific Letter) (Letter to the Editor)

To the Editor: Violence, previously considered a social issue, is now an acknowledged public health problem. It is defined as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against another person, against oneself, or against a...

Hyperglycemic Crisis in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: High Mortality and Association of Hyperosmolar Ketoacidosis with a New Diagnosis of Diabetes (Original Articles) (Clinical Report)

Diabetic hyperglycaemic crisis is a major reason for high-care unit admissions, (1) with mortality rates of up to 30%. (2-9) It is characteristically classified as ketoacidotic or hyperosmolar.10 Presentations with the combination of ketoacidosis and hyperosmolality are recognised, (6,7,11-16)...

Educational Factors That Influence the Urban-Rural Distribution of Health Professionals in South Africa: A Case-Control Study (Original Articles) (Report)

Among factors that influence health professionals’ career choices in favour of rural and under-served communities, the role of undergraduate and postgraduate training is assumed to be significant. (1-3) Selection criteria for entry to training, timing, duration, site and type...

NDM-1 Has Arrived: First Report of a Carbapenem Resistance Mechanism in South Africa (Scientific Letter) (Carbapenemase) (Letter to the Editor) (Report)

To the Editor: Resistance to -lactam antibiotics in Enterobacteriaceae has steadily increased, with the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) seen in the past decade. Resistance to carbapenems may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, but the development and...

Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in the Mthatha Area of South Africa, 1993-2004 (Original Articles)

Each year, 1.2 million people die in RTAs worldwide and millions more sustain injuries, with some suffering permanent disabilities; the young are particularly vulnerable. The average daily global death toll is 3 285 people. (1) Earlier this century, public...

Mental Health Service Delivery in South Africa from 2000 to 2010: One Step Forward, One Step Back (Original Articles) (Report)

In 2000, Rita Thorn published a systematic review of mental health services research in southern Africa, conducted from 1967 to 1999. (1) The review suggested a need to shift from centralised institutional care, which characterised apartheid South Africa, towards...

Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission of HIV Programme: Low Vertical Transmission in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa (Original Articles) (Human Immunodefeciency Virus)

Objective. To describe the operational effectiveness of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV programme at McCord Hospital during the period 1 March 2004-31 August 2005. Design. Observational cohort study.

Is Scaling up Enough to Curb the HIV Epidemic in Southern Africa? (Issues in Public Health) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) (Report)

We highlight key insights and provide some food for thought on ‘Scaling up for success’, the theme of the 4th Southern African AIDS Conference (Durban, 31 March-3 April 2009), where over 4 000 scientists, field workers and activists presented...

Maternal Deaths Associated with Eclampsia in South Africa: Lessons to Learn from the Confidential Enquiries Into Maternal Deaths, 2005-2007 (ISSUES IN Medicine) (Report)

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are the commonest medical complication in pregnancy, and remain the commonest direct cause of maternal mortality in South Africa. (1) The latest (2005 2007) Saving Mothers report (SMR) indicates that there were 622 maternal...

Medical Imperialism in French North Africa

French-colonial Tunisia in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed shifting concepts of identity, including varying theories of ethnic essentialism, a drive toward “modernization,” and imperialist interpretations of science and medicine. As French colonizers worked to realize ideas of a “modern”...

Treating Adolescents in South Africa: Time for Adolescent Medicine Units?(Issues in Medicine)

There are around 1.2 billion adolescents (between 10 and 19 years of age) worldwide. (1) In South Africa, the number of adolescents is estimated at 9 950 100–almost 21% of the population. (2) They constitute a large fraction of...

Changing Gender Profile of Medical Schools in South Africa (Original Articles)

Background. Since 1994, higher education policy has been committed to equity of access for all, irrespective of race and gender. Objectives. We investigated progress towards these goals in the education of medical doctors, with an emphasis on gender.

The Contribution of South African Curricula to Prepare Health Professionals for Working in Rural Or Under-Served Areas in South Africa: A Peer Review Evaluation (Original Articles)

The Collaboration for Health Equity through Education and Research (CHEER) was formed in 2003 to examine strategies that would increase the production of health professional graduates who choose to practise in rural and under-served areas in South Africa. It...

More Doctors and Dentists are Needed in South Africa (Original Articles) (Report)

In 2008, the Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA) initiated a project entitled ‘Strengthening Academic Medicine and Specialist Training’ as a response to the concern among medical and dental professionals about increasing challenges in the academic training environment...