Detection of Dengue Viral Infections in Aedes Mosquitoes: An Essential Tool for Epidemiological Surveillance (Commentary)

Dengue fever (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) are important mosquito-borne viral diseases of humans and recognised as important emerging infectious diseases in the tropics and subtropics. (1) There has been a considerable increase in the geographic spread, number...

Muscoid Flies in Tsunami Hit Areas & Their Management (Commentary)

Natural disasters earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, tsunamis, floods and droughts are catastrophic events which can have a serious impact on health of the society. Triggered by severe earthquakes off the northwest tip of Indonesia, early on Sunday 26 December 2004,...

Genetics & Hypertension (Commentary) (Report)

Hypertension is a complex disease involving interaction of many risk genes and environmental factors such as obesity, dietary salt intake, alcohol consumption, and stress. Approximately 20 to 60 per cent of the population variability in blood pressure is genetically...

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae: An Emerging Pulmonary Pathogen (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

Mycoplasmas are unique forms of life that lack the ability to produce cell walls. Recognition of Mycoplasma as a bacterial pathogen took many years of intense clinical and research work. The first Mycoplasma to be isolated in culture was...

Azadirachta Indica As a Public Health Tool for the Control of Malaria & Other Vector-Borne Diseases (Commentary)

Neem-based products from Azadirachta indica have been successfully used for pest control in agriculture and gardening since long in India and more recently in European countries and in the USA (1). The seed kernels, particularly rich in bioactive azadirachtin...

Pkdl–a Drug Related Phenomenon? (Commentary) (Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis ) (Clinical Report)

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a cutaneous manifestation of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), characterized by skin lesions, nodules or papules, frequently on the face. It often appears 2-7 years after the apparently successful treatment of VL by antimonial drugs. It...

Symptoms of Depression in Schizophrenia (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

In an article in this issue Heald et al (1) in their study on characterization of depression in schizophrenia report that the precise nature of depressive symptoms present in different phases of the schizophrenic illness can be differentiated qualitatively...

Placental Pathology in Thrombophilia: Establishing Clinico-Pathological Correlations (Commentary)

Women with thrombophilia are at an increased risk of not only venous thromboembolism, but various other complications including intrauterine foetal growth retardation, pre-eclampsia and foetal loss. Both inherited and acquired thrombophilias contribute to thrombotic events and their adverse outcome...

The Need for Longitudinal Measurements at Altitude (Commentary)

The study by Amitabh et al (1) in this issue, on adaptive changes in body composition and fitness in Indian soldiers exposed to extreme environments, is an important step in understanding how to manage performance, health and well being...

Challenges in Identifying Genetic Risk Factors for Common Multifactorial Disorders (Commentary) (Report)

Advances in recombinant DNA technology have opened up many new diagnostic tools for monogenic disorders. DNA based techniques are also being used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, and diagnosis and prognostication of cancers. Research in molecular pathogenesis of...

Ectopic Cushing’s Syndrome: Some Facts (Commentary) (Report)

ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome (CS) can be caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (Cushing’s disease, CD) or by ectopic production of ACTH (ectopic ACTH syndrome, EAS) by a vast array of benign or malignant tumours that can vary from small...

Can Maternal Leptin Level at Early Gestation be Used As a Predictor of Postpartum Weight Retention? (Commentary)

The protein product of the ob gene, called leptin, mainly but not exclusively produced by white adipose tissue, is thought to suppress appetite and regulate energy homeostasis (1,2). Extremely obese individuals have high leptin levels, which is likely to...

Vitamin D Deficiency in Breastfed Infants & the Need for Routine Vitamin D Supplementation (Commentary)

There has been increasing global interest regarding the role of vitamin D in health and disease. In fact, more and more scientific evidence linking vitamin D to various chronic diseases in children and adults is emerging. Prevention of vitamin...

Spotted Fevers & Typhus Fever in Tamil Nadu (Commentary)

Rickettsia and Orientia represent the genera of causative microorganisms of some of the most covert reemerging diseases of the present times. These genera are morphologically and biochemically similar to other Gram-negative bacteria. The fastidious bacterial organisms are obligate intracellular...

Natural Reservoir, Zoonotic Tuberculosis & Interface with Human Tuberculosis: An Unsolved Question (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

Mycobacterium bovis is an important member of the M. tuberculosis complex. Although it is primarily recognized as an animal pathogen it can cause disease in humans too. Similarly, M. tuberculosis, though a human pathogen does infect animals. It is...

Hypertension & Pre-Hypertension in Developing Countries (Commentary) (Report)

Hypertension is reported to be the fourth contributor to premature death in developed countries and the seventh in developing countries (1). Recent reports indicate that nearly 1 billion adults (more than a quarter of the world’s population) had hypertension...

Issues in Nutrient Supplementation of Breast-Milk Fed Low Birth Weight Infants (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

Of the 20.6 million low birth weight (LBW) infants born every year, about 8 million are born in India (1). Low birth weight is the most important risk factor for neonatal mortality, contributing to about three quarters of neonatal...

From the President (Commentary)

Welcome to the summer edition of the journal. Hard to believe it but another year has flown by and your thoughts are now probably turning to holidays and plans for the New Year. It has been a busy year...

Challenges in Providing HIV Care to Paediatric Age Group in India (Commentary) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) (Report)

Over 90 per cent of the 2 million HIV infected children worldwide, live in developing countries (1). In India, 3.8 per cent (2) (approximately 100,000 (3)) of an estimated 2.5 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are children. As...

Management of Chronic Hepatitis B Patients: Efficacy & Limitation of Nucleos(T)Ide Analogues (Commentary) (Report)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes a spectrum of liver diseases including acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV contains a circular, partially double-stranded DNA genome of 3.2 kb. This genome includes 4 partly overlapping open reading...