Human Medical Research

Human Medical Research

Medical research involving human subjects has contributed to considerable advancements in our knowledge, and to medical benefits. At the same time the development of new technologies as well as further globalisation of medical research raises questions that require the attention of researchers from a range of disciplines. This book gathers the contributions of researchers from […]

Doing HIV Medicine in Southern Africa--What Does the Epidemic Teach US?(Original Articles) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus )

Doing HIV Medicine in Southern Africa–What Does the Epidemic Teach US?(Original Articles) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus )

As my grandmother used to say, ‘There are only two families in the world, the haves and the have-nots.’ (1) (Cervantes) In the last analysis it is not so much their subjects that the great teachers teach us as it is they themselves. (2) (Frederich Buechner) If the HIV epidemic has done Africa any good, […]

Natural Reservoir, Zoonotic Tuberculosis & Interface with Human Tuberculosis: An Unsolved Question (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

Natural Reservoir, Zoonotic Tuberculosis & Interface with Human Tuberculosis: An Unsolved Question (Commentary) (Clinical Report)

Mycobacterium bovis is an important member of the M. tuberculosis complex. Although it is primarily recognized as an animal pathogen it can cause disease in humans too. Similarly, M. tuberculosis, though a human pathogen does infect animals. It is believed that as the human civilization has advanced through various stages of evolution it has acquired […]

HPV & HPV Vaccination: Issues in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Human Papillomavirus) (Report)

HPV & HPV Vaccination: Issues in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Human Papillomavirus) (Report)

Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide causing most cancer related deaths in women in developing countries including India. The most predominant etiological factor for cervical cancer is persistent infection of certain high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), while low-risk types are associated with benign cervical lesions and genital warts. In India, […]

Protection of Human Participants in Health Research--a Comparison of Some US Federal Regulations and South African Research Ethics Guidelines (Issues IN RESEARCH)

Protection of Human Participants in Health Research–a Comparison of Some US Federal Regulations and South African Research Ethics Guidelines (Issues IN RESEARCH)

In response to criticism of ethical review of a South African clinical trial, we contrast aspects of the United States Common Rule with South African research ethics requirements. In the USA the Common Rule does not apply to all health research and allows many exemptions from ethics review and waivers of informed consent. At a […]

Challenges in Providing HIV Care to Paediatric Age Group in India (Commentary) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) (Report)

Challenges in Providing HIV Care to Paediatric Age Group in India (Commentary) (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) (Report)

Over 90 per cent of the 2 million HIV infected children worldwide, live in developing countries (1). In India, 3.8 per cent (2) (approximately 100,000 (3)) of an estimated 2.5 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are children. As of September 2008, of about 1,77,808 individuals started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) since its launch in […]

Cervical Cancer Prevention & the Role of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in India (Review Article) (Report)

Cervical Cancer Prevention & the Role of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines in India (Review Article) (Report)

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths among Indian women. Current screening and prevention programs based on cytology have not been effective in reducing the disease burden. Two vaccines are now available for primary prevention. They generate neutralizing antibodies to HPV capsid protein. The vaccines have […]