BCG Vaccination in South African Hiv-Exposed Infants--Risks and Benefits (Issues in Public Health) (Report)

BCG Vaccination in South African Hiv-Exposed Infants–Risks and Benefits (Issues in Public Health) (Report)

Until 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination should be contraindicated in infants with symptomatic HIV disease in countries with a high burden of tuberculosis. This recommendation was based on the perceived low risk of serious adverse events in HIV-infected infants. The WHO revised its recommendations regarding BCG vaccination in […]

HPV & HPV Vaccination: Issues in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Human Papillomavirus) (Report)

HPV & HPV Vaccination: Issues in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Human Papillomavirus) (Report)

Cervical cancer is the second-most common cancer in women worldwide causing most cancer related deaths in women in developing countries including India. The most predominant etiological factor for cervical cancer is persistent infection of certain high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs), while low-risk types are associated with benign cervical lesions and genital warts. In India, […]

Epidemiological Transition of Hepatitis A in India: Issues for Vaccination in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Report)

Epidemiological Transition of Hepatitis A in India: Issues for Vaccination in Developing Countries (Review Article) (Report)

With improvement in economic and living conditions of the communities, the age of acquiring hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is shifting from early childhood to adolescence and young adulthood. Such epidemiological shift leads to an increased incidence of symptomatic HAV infection, including heightened risk of liver failure. Data from India indicate that the population is […]

Accounting for the Full Benefits of Childhood Vaccination in South Africa (Medicine and Economics)

Accounting for the Full Benefits of Childhood Vaccination in South Africa (Medicine and Economics)

While remarkable gains in health have been achieved since the mid-20th century, they have been unequally distributed, and mortality and morbidity burdens in some regions remain enormous. Of the almost 10 million children under 5 years of age who died in 2006, only 100 000 died in industrialised countries, while 4.8 million died in sub-Saharan […]

HPV Vaccination: The Promise & Problems (Review Article) (Report)

HPV Vaccination: The Promise & Problems (Review Article) (Report)

Four-fifths of the cervical cancer burden in the world is experienced in developing countries. HPV genotypes 16 and 18 account for 70 per cent of cervical cancers and currently available vaccines targeting these two types confer a high degree of protection against HPV 16/18 infection and related cervical precancerous lesions. However, widespread implementation of HPV […]

Cervical Cancer Screening & HPV Vaccination: A Comprehensive Approach to Cervical Cancer Control (Review Article) (Report)

Cervical Cancer Screening & HPV Vaccination: A Comprehensive Approach to Cervical Cancer Control (Review Article) (Report)

India with its highest share of global burden of cervical cancer has to implement a population based cervical cancer control program to reduce the number of deaths. There are new screening options available like visual inspection after acetic acid application (VIA) test, single visit approach to screening and treatment etc. Emergence of the two effective […]