This is a comprehensive review of the recent advances in research on the vascular endothelium. It provides a historical background and a guide for future directions in research. This volume contains 20 chapters by different authors who have all made significant contributions to the field of research in the vascular endothelium and is a good representation of our knowledge in early 2006. Authors discuss the structure, development and function of the normal vascular endothelium, consider conditions that lead to the disruption of vascular physiology and write about specific pathologies and their treatment. Various gene therapy strategies for the treatment of vascular pathologies are also being discussed.